⒈和“When, while, before, after, since”等连用，表示“ 时间”，例如：
● He scanned the newspaper while having breakfast.
● Some students stammered when speaking in front of the teacher.
● Wash your hands before eating your meals.
● Return the book to me after reading it.
● I have lost contact with Robi since leaving university.
● All the necessary details are included, thus eliminating needless further correspondence.
● John did not come along, thereby making it necessary for us to get someone else to replace him.
● Though working day and night, the gambler still could not make enough money to pay off his debts.
● Although answering all the questions in the test, Xiaogai did not get a good grade.
⒋和“even if, even though”连用，表示“条件”，例如：
● Even if still functioning, the old machine would be of no great value.
● Even though raining, we had to launch the campaign as planned.
⒌和“as if, as though”连用，表示“比较”，例如：
● The man walked hurriedly, but suddenly stopped, as if remembering something.
● Helen sat down in a quiet corner, as though waiting for someone to come.
就一般情况说，现在分词短语作副词用途时，它的逻辑主语，就是句子的主语。但是如果分词短语的逻辑主语不是句子的主语时，它便要有自己的主语而形成独立结构(an absolute construction)，即：“主语+现在分词短语”。例如：
● He stared at the approaching girl, his eyes widening.
● All the participants having arrived, the chairman declared the meeting open.
● With their breath running out, some weaker athletes had to stop playing.
● In a quiet place like that, the villagers generally do as they wish, without anybody trying to bother about them.