⒈和“When, while, before, after, since”等连用,表示“ 时间”,例如:

● He scanned the newspaper while having breakfast.

● Some students stammered when speaking in front of the teacher.

● Wash your hands before eating your meals.

● Return the book to me after reading it.

● I have lost contact with Robi since leaving university.

⒉和“thus, thereby”连用,表示“结果”,例如:

● All the necessary details are included, thus eliminating needless further correspondence.

● John did not come along, thereby making it necessary for us to get someone else to replace him.

⒊和“though, although”连用,表示“让步”,例如:

● Though working day and night, the gambler still could not make enough money to pay off his debts.

● Although answering all the questions in the test, Xiaogai did not get a good grade.

⒋和“even if, even though”连用,表示“条件”,例如:

● Even if still functioning, the old machine would be of no great value.

● Even though raining, we had to launch the campaign as planned.

⒌和“as if, as though”连用,表示“比较”,例如:

● The man walked hurriedly, but suddenly stopped, as if remembering something.

● Helen sat down in a quiet corner, as though waiting for someone to come.

就一般情况说,现在分词短语作副词用途时,它的逻辑主语,就是句子的主语。但是如果分词短语的逻辑主语不是句子的主语时,它便要有自己的主语而形成独立结构(an absolute construction),即:“主语+现在分词短语”。例如:

● He stared at the approaching girl, his eyes widening.

● All the participants having arrived, the chairman declared the meeting open.


● With their breath running out, some weaker athletes had to stop playing.

● In a quiet place like that, the villagers generally do as they wish, without anybody trying to bother about them.